5. Use of Sources

Beginning in the 2020–2021 academic year, all basic matters concerning in-text citations and reference list entries are to be handled in accordance with the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition.


Textual Works

Whole authored book

Brown, A. (2011). The rise and fall of communism. Ecco.

Styhre, A., & Sundgren, M. (2011). Venturing into the bioeconomy. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230299436

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 2011; Styhre & Sundgren, 2011)

Narrative citation: Brown (2011); Styhre and Sundgren (2011)

Further information and examples from APA Style

Revised edition, translated book

Wagner, T. (2014). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need—and what we can do about it (Rev. ed.). Basic Books.

Kawabata, Y. (2006). The old capital (J. Martin Holman, Trans.). Shoemaker & Hoard.

Parenthetical citation: (Wagner, 2014; Kawabata, 2006)

Narrative citation: Wagner (2014); Kawabata (2006)

Whole edited book

Mariotti, F. (2017). Vegetarian and plant-based diets in health and disease prevention (1st ed.). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978–0–12–803968–7.12001–5

Parenthetical citation: (Mariotti, 2017)

Narrative citation: Mariotti (2017)

Chapter in an edited book

Barbieri, P., & Scherer, S. (2012). School discipline, performance, and the presence of immigrants in Italian schools. In R. Arum, & M. Velez (Eds.), Improving learning environments: School discipline and student achievement in comparative perspective (pp. 137–162). Stanford University Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Barbieri & Scherer, 2012)

Narrative citation: Barbieri and Scherer, 2012

Further information and examples from APA Style

Journal article

Adedeji, K. A., Raji, N. A., Oyetunji, E. O., & Ishola, B. (2020). Design and fabrication of a motorized rice hulling machine. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, 11(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMER2019.0510

Parenthetical citation: (Adedeji et al., 2020)

Narrative citation: Adedeji et al. (2020)

Further information and examples from APA Style

Newspaper article

Wilson-Harris, N. (2020, August 4). Dreadlocked girl gets green light from Kensington. The Gleaner. http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/lead-stories/20200804/dreadlocked-girl-gets-green-light-kensington

Parenthetical citation: (Wilson-Harris, 2020)

Narrative citation: Wilson-Harris (2020)

Further information and examples from APA Style

Book review

Njau, L.S., & Isuja, S.P. (2019). [Review of the book The challenge for Africa, by W. Maathai]. International Journal of Knowledge, Innovation & Entrepreneurship, 7(1), pp. 93–95. Retrieved from https://www.ijkie.org

If the DOI is available, use it. Otherwise, use the URL of the journal’s homepage preceded by Retrieved from.

Parenthetical citation: (Njau & Isuja, 2019)

Narrative citation: Njau and Isuja (2019)

Published dissertation or thesis

Balazs, M. (2020). Internationalization of a health care mobile application: Case study of Onerva Hoivaviestintä Oy. [Master’s thesis, Jamk University of Applied Sciences]. Theseus. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:amk–2020070519503

Parenthetical citation: (Balazs, 2020)

Narrative citation: Balazs (2020)

Further information and examples from APA Style

Data Sets

Data set

Juva, K. (n.d.) The downloadable version of classics of English and American literature in Finnish [text corpus]. Kielipankki. Retrieved from http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:lb–2017011301

Parenthetical citation: (Juva, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Juva (n.d.)

Further information and examples from APA Style

Audiovisual Media

YouTube video

TheCrafsMan SteadyCraftin. (2020, March 19). Don’t forget to wear your dust mask (music video) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_65qCD2On8

Parenthetical citation: (TheCrafsMan SteadyCraftin, 2020)

Narrative citation: TheCrafsMan SteadyCraftin (2020)

Online Media

Webpage on a website

SportBusiness Staff. (2020, August 5). Indianapolis 500 will now be held without spectators after IMS reverses course. SportBusiness. https://www.sportbusiness.com/news/indianapolis–500-will-now-be-held-without-spectators-after-ims-reverses-course/

Finland to start giving boys HPV vaccine. (2020, August 4). Yle Uutiset. https://yle.fi/uutiset/osasto/news/finland_to_start_giving_boys_hpv_vaccine/11478401

Parenthetical citation: (SportBusiness Staff, 2020; Finland to start giving boys HPV vaccine, 2020)

Narrative citation: SportBusiness Staff (2020); Finland to start giving boys HPV vaccine (2020)


Vigo, J. (2020, August 4). Why multi-factor authentication should be set up for all your services and devices. TechRepublic. https://www.techrepublic.com/article/why-multi-factor-authentication-should-be-set-up-for-all-your-services-and-devices/

Parenthetical citation: (Vigo, 2020)

Narrative citation: Vigo (2020)


Noem, K. [@govkristinoem]. (2020, July 29). Distance learning isn’t a long term solution. Our kids have only achieved about 70% of the learning that they could [Video attached][Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/govkristinoem/status/1288533896229986304

Parenthetical citation: (Noem, 2020)

Narrative citation: Noem (2020)